Non-quantum liquefaction of coherent gases


We show that a gas-to-liquid phase transition at zero temperature may occur in a coherent gas of bosons in the presence of competing nonlinear effects. This situation can take place in atomic systems like Bose–Einstein condensates in alkali gases with two-body and three-body interactions of opposite signs, as well as in laser beams which propagate through optical media with Kerr (focusing) and higher order (defocusing) nonlinear responses. The liquefaction process takes place in the absence of any quantum effect and can be formulated in the framework of a mean field theory, in terms of the minimization of a thermodynamic potential. We study from a thermodynamic point of view all the stationary solutions of the cubic–quintic nonlinear Schrödinger equation which describes our system. We show that solitonic localized solutions connect the gaseous and liquid phases. Furthermore, we also perform a numerical simulation in the presence of linear gain and three-body recombination where a rich dynamics, including the emergence of self-organization behavior, is found

Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena 238, 1490-1495 (2009)
David Novoa
David Novoa
Ikerbasque Research Fellow & Visiting Professor